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HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY of the
EARLY KINGDOMS of SCOTLAND
PART 2: AD 598-714

598 - Battle of Circin, probably at the Howe of Mearns, where King Aedan of Dalriada is defeated by the Picts after trying to assert his authority over his fatherís old Kingdom of Gowrie. His sons, Eochaid Find and Artur, are killed. A further battle against the Bernicians, south of the border, leads to the death of Aedanís son, Bran and Domangart. Kings Mynyddog Mwynfawr of Din-Eidyn & Cynan of Gododdin ride south to fight Saxon Bernicia against enormous odds at the Battle of Catraeth (Catterick). The British are victorious, but take heavy losses.

c.600 - Welsh bard, Prince Aneirin of the Northern Pennines, writes the poem, Y Gododdin, recording the events of the Battle of Catraeth (Catterick).

603 - Worried about the expansive policies of King Aethelfrith of Bernicia, King Aedan of Dalriada invades his territory, with a large contingent of Irish allies. While the Scots are busy despoiling the country, the Bernicians gather a strong army and the two clash at the Battle of Degsastan (Addinston). King Aethelfrith is victorious, but suffers heavy losses.

c.606 - King Aedan of Dalriada abdicates his throne in favour of his son, Eochaid Buide, and retires to the monastery of Kilkerran.

609 - Death of the former King Aedan of Dalriada at Kilkerran. He is succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Eochaid Buide.

612 - Death of King Riderch Hael of Strathclyde. He is succeeded by his son, St. Constantine.

614 - Death of St. Kentigern Garthwys, Bishop of Glasgow

616 - King Aethelfrith of Bernicia & Deira is killed fighting King Edwin of Deira at the Battle of the River Idle and his children are forced to flee north. His heir, Prince Eanfrith, seeks refuge with his mother's family, probably in Gododdin, and then moves further north into Pictland. King Eochaid Buide of Dalriada welcomes the younger Northumbrian princes, Oswald, Oswiu and others, to his court. From here they are converted to Christianity by the monks of Iona.

c.620 - King (& Saint) Constantine of Strathclyde probably abdicates in favour of his cousin, Neithon. Strathclyde and Gododdin are invaded by King Edwin of Deira and his army. Prince Eanfrith, heir of Bernicia, marries a Pictish Royal Princess and fathers Prince (later King) Talorcan (I) of the Picts. Princes Oswald & Oswiu of Bernicia offer their sister, Aebbe, in marriage to Prince Domnall Brecc of Dalriada, but she insists on entering the church instead.

622 - Death of Prince Conaing mac Aedan of Dalriada. He drowns at sea. Prince Domnall Brecc mac Eochaid of Dalriada joins the forces of Conall Guthbind mac Suibne in Ireland and defeats the rival Ui Neill faction at the Battle of Cenn Delgthan.

627 - In Antrim, Prince Connad Cerr, sub-King of Irish Dalriada, leads a revenge attack, on behalf of his Cenel Cruithen allies, against Fichna mac Deman at the Battle of Ard Corann and is victorious.

629 - Death of King Eochaid Buide. He is succeeded by his second cousin, Connad Cerr mac Conall. The new King falls at the Battle of Fid Eoin, supporting his Cenel Cruithen ally, Dicuil mac Eochaid, in his struggle for the Kingship of the Dalaraide. Amongst the dead are Princes Rigullan mac Conaing and Failbe mac Eochaid Buide of Dalriada and the exiled Prince Osric of Bernicia.Connad is succeeded by Domnall Brecc mac Eochaid Buide.

c.630 - Death of King Neithon of Strathclyde. He is succeeded by his son, Bili.

633 - Prince Eanfrith of Bernicia leaves Pictland to claim his rightful crown after the death of King Edwin of Deira fighting the British of Gwynedd at the Battle of Hatfield Chase.

634 - Kings Eanfrith of Bernicia and Osric of Deira are murdered by agents of King Cadwallon of Gwynedd and the formerís exiled half-brother, Oswald, theoretically succeeds to a united Northumbria. King Domnall Brecc of Dalriada lends him a force of men (including monks from Iona) and he marches south to claim his inheritance. The Scottish force clashes with the armies of King Cadwallon of Gwynedd at the Battle of Heavenfield and are victorious. King Oswald re-introduces Christianity to Northumbria and the superior of the Iona monks attempts unsuccessfully to convert his people. Oswald calls on Iona to send an evangelical Bishop instead.

635 - Battle of Caladrois (Dun Nosebridge) and the defeat of the armies of King Domnall Brecc of Dalriada. His opponent is unknown, but the conflict may have concerned the disputed overlordship of the Cenel Oengusa on Islay.

636 - King Domnall Brecc of Dalriada is forced to share power with his third cousin, Ferchar mac Connad Cerr.

637 - King Domnall Brecc of Dalriada enters into an alliance with his maternal nephew, King Congal Caech of Ulster, during the Irish dynastic wars. Helped by King Oswald of Northumbria, he sends troops to Ireland but they are severely defeated by King Domnall mac Aed and his Ui Neill alliance at the Battle of Mag Rath (Moira). On the same day, the Cenel Eogain attack Cenel Conaill lands in Donegal in support of the same King Congal Caech of Ulster. Withdrawing by sea, they are pursued and defeated at the Battle of Sailtire (Kintyre).

638 - Battle of Glen Morriston and another defeat for King Domnall Brecc of Dalriada, probably at the hands of the Picts. Dalriadan expansion into Pictish territory ceases. The Siege of Din-Eidyn (Edinburgh) by King Oswiu of Bernicia leads to the fall of the House of Gododdin. The Gododdin aristocracy flee to Strathclyde.

c.640 - Death of former King (& Saint) Constantine of Strathclyde as Abbot of Govan.

642 - King Owen of Strathclyde halts Scottish expansion by killing King Domnal Brecc of Dalriada at the Battle of Strathcarron.

c.650 - Melrose Abbey is founded by King Oswiu of Bernicia. Bishop (& Saint) Aidan of Lindisfarne sends St. Eata to be the first Abbot with St. Boisil as his Prior.

651 - Death of St. Boisil, Prior of Melrose. He is succeeded by St. Cuthbert.

653 - Through the right of his mother, Talorcan I is crowned King of the Picts at the insistence of his uncle, King Oswiu of Bernicia. He naturally accepts Northumbrian overlordship.

657 - A group of monks from Melrose travel south and found Ripon Abbey. St. Eata, Abbot of Melrose, becomes first Abbot of Ripon.

660 - Death of King Talorcan I of the Picts, possible overthrow of Northumbrian overlordship in the kingdom.

c.663 - Probable invasion of Pictland by King Oswiu of Northumbria. He establishes overlordship of, at least, the Southern Pictish sub-kingdoms of Fortriu and Fib (and possibly Circinn).

664 - Bishop (& Saint) Colman resigns his See of Lindisfarne and returns to Iona, having lost the debate concerning Roman verses Irish Celtic practices in the Northern Church at the Synod of Whitby. He is replaced by Tuda who dies of the Plague soon afterward. Tuda is then succeeded as Abbot, by St. Eata former Abbot of Ripon who brings his prior, St. Cuthbert, from Melrose Abbey to Lindisfarne.

673 - Death of King Domangart of Dalriada. He is succeeded by his nephew, Maelduin, who probably submits to King Ecgfrith of Northumbria as his overlord.

c.673 - The Picts revolt against Northumbrian overlordship. King Ecgfrith marches north and, with the help of his under-king, Beornhaeth, he defeats them in Manau-Gododdin. King Drest of the Picts is ousted.

680 - King Bruide ipe Bili of the Southern Picts begins his campaign to conquer the lands of Northern Pictland.

683 - King Bruide ipe Bili of the Picts besieged the Scots at Dunadd and brought them under his authority.

685 - The Picts, under King Bruide ipe Bili, revolt against their Northumbrian overlords. St. Cuthbert advises King Ecgfrith of Northumbria not to invade Pictland. Undeterred, Ecgfrith marches his army north to engage the enemy at the Battle of Nechtansmere (Dunnichen). The Picts, possibly with Scottish and Strathclyde Briton help, thoroughly defeat the Saxon guard. The latter permanently withdraw from Pictish and Scottish lands north of the Forth and also from much of the British territory north of the Tweed where King Dumnagual of Strathclyde re-establishes himself. Death of the childless King Ecgfrith of Northumbria. The Scottish Court helps support the House of Aethelric in securing the succession of his illegitimate half-brother, Aeldfrith. Aeldfrith is brought south from Iona, where he is studying.

698 - Pictland is invaded by Dux Berhtred of Northumbria who is subsequently killed in battle.

711 - Pictland is subject to an invasion by the Northumbrians, under Dux Berhtfrith, and are defeated in Manau Gododdin.

Part 3: AD 715-819

 

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