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HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY of the
EARLY KINGDOMS of SCOTLAND
PART 1: AD 498-597

c.498 - King Fergus Mor leads his Scots people from Ireland into Pictland and founds the Scottish Kingdom of Dalriada.

501 - Death of King Fergus Mor of Dalriada. He is succeeded by his son, Domangart.

c.505 - Death of King Dumnagual Hen of Strathclyde. His kingdom is possibly divided between his many sons, although Cedic rises above the others.

507 - Death of King Domangart of Dalriada. He is succeeded by his son, Comgall.

c.525 - Prince Gabhran mac Domangart of Dalriada leads a Scottish party east to settle Gowrie, where he marries a British Princess, Lleian, daughter of King Brychan of Manau Gododdin and probably niece of King Cedic of Strathclyde.

c.527 - Birth of Prince Aedan, son of Prince Gabhran mac Domangart of Dalriada

c.528 - Banishment of the unmarried Princess (& Saint) Thaney from her father King Loth of Gododdin's Court at Trapain Law. The birth of her son, St. Kentigern Garthwys, follows soon afterward at Culross.

c.530 - Death of King Cedic of Strathclyde. Probable division of his kingdom between his sons, Tutgual, Senyllt & Serwan. Tutgual takes the Strathclyde homeland, Senyllt probably the area around Selkirk and Serwan elsewhere.

538 - Probable abdication of King Comgall of Dalriada in order to enter a monastery. He is succeeded by his brother, Gabhran.

542 - Death of the former King Comgall of Dalriada.

c.545 - Prince Aedan of Dalriada possibly marries Domelch, a Pictish Princess Royal.

c.550 - Death of St. Ninian, Bishop of Whithorn.

553 - King Galam Cennaleph of the Picts. He is succeeded by Bruide ipe Mailcon, whose father had been King of Gwynedd.

c.553 - St. Kentigern Garthwys founds Glasgow Cathedral adjoining a Christian cemetery established by St. Ninian; probably at the request of King Tutgual Tutclyd of Strathclyde

c.554 - Death of King Tutgual Tutclyd of Strathclyde. The kingdom is probably divided between his sons, Morcant Mwynfawr & Riderch Hael.

c.555 - St. Kentigern Garthwys, Bishop of Glasgow, tours his diocese and is opposed by King Morcant Mwynfawr of Lesser Strathclyde.

558 - The eastern settlement of the Dalriadan Scots in Gowrie are probably expelled by King Bruide ipe Mailcon of the Picts. Death of King Gabhran of Dalriada, possibly in battle. He is succeeded by his nephew, Conall mac Comgall. The Scots become subject to Pictish overlordship.

c.560 - Prince Elidyr of Strathclyde invades Gwynedd in right of his wife. He tries to expel his brother-in-law, King Rhun Hir of Gwynedd, at the Battle of the Cadnant Brook, but is killed in the process. Due to heightened persecution by King Morcant Mwynfawr of Lesser Strathclyde, St. Kentigern Garthwys flees his Glasgow diocese for the safety of South Wales, before moving Northwards to Llanelwy (St. Asaphs).

562 - St. Mo-Luag founds the monastery of Lismore.

563 - St. Columba travels from Ireland to Scotland. He establishes a monastery on the Island of Hinba (Jura) and then moves on to Iona. He is granted the Island by King Conall of Dalriada, but probably also seeks permission of King Bruide ipe Maelchon of the Picts to settle on his borders. Columba founds an Abbey on Iona and becomes a friendly rival of St. Mo-Luag.

564 - St. Comgall of Bangor's monastery on Tiree is raided by the Picts.

c.565 - King Riderch Hael of Strathclyde mounts an unsuccessful revenge attack on King Rhun Hir of Gwynedd. Rhun marches on Strathclyde and reinforces the armies of his half-brother, Bruide ipe Maelchon, in Pictland. St. Columba visits the Court of King Bruide ipe Maelchon of the Picts, near Inverness. On the way, he stops at Airdchartdan (Urquhart) on the banks of Loch Ness, converts a local chieftain and has an encounter with the famous monster.

568 - Scots chieftains amongst the Cenel Oengusa and Cenel Loairn on Islay and Seil probably rise up against King Conall of Dalriada. He overcomes the rebels with the help of the armies of King Coman Bec of Meath.

569 - Prince Aedan mac Gabhran of Dalriada establishes himself, in the right of his mother, as King of Manau Gododdin, with his capital at Eperpuill (Aberfoyle).

c.570-75 - The Northern British Alliance is forged between the kingdoms of Strathclyde, North Rheged, Bryneich and Elmet. They fight the Northumbrians at the Battles of Gwen Ystrad and the Cells of Berwyn.

573 - King Riderch Hael of Strathclyde allies himself with Kings Peredyr and Gwrgi of Ebrauc (York) and Dunaut Bwr of the Northern Pennines. They march to claim the fort at Caerlaverock from King Gwendoleu of Caer-Gwendoleu (Carwinley). The latter is killed in the Battle of Arthuret and his bard, Myrddin, is forced to flee into the Caledonian Forest.

574 - Death of King Conall of Dalriada. There is some dispute over who is his rightful heir, Eogan mac Gabhran or his brother, Aedan. There is an armed clash at Delgu in Kintyre (either between rival claimants or against King Baetan mac Cairell of Ulster trying to assert his overlordship). Although St. Columba favoured Eogan, he is told in a dream to ordain Aedan as king. Iona is established as the Royal Church of the Kingdom of the Scots. King Aedan of Dalriada reluctantly submits to King Baetan mac Cairell of Ulster as his overlord on Island Magee. St. Kentigern Garthwys leaves his Northern Welsh diocese of Llanelwy (St. Asaphs) in the hands of St. Asaph and returns to Strathclyde to reclaim the Bishopric of Glasgow.

575 - Accompanied by St. Columba, King Aedan of Dalriada meets with King Aed mac Ainmure of the Northern Ui Neill and Colman mac Comgellan, representing the people of Irish Dalriada, at the Conference of Druim Ceatt (The Mullagh, Limavady). They agree to divide taxation, military and naval service rights in Irish Dalriada; thus forging an alliance to thwart the expansionist policies of King Baetan mac Cairell of Ulster. The Scots break free from Irish overlordship.

c.575 - King Bruide ipe Mailcon of the Picts achieves overlordship of the Southern Pictish sub-kingdoms. St. Kentigern Garthwys, Bishop of Llanelwy, returns to Glasgow.

577 - King Baetan mac Cairell of Ulster attacks the Isle of Man in order to drive out the ruling British.

578 - King Baetan mac Cairell of Ulster completes his expulsion of the British from the Isle of Man. King Neithon of Ynys Manaw either flees or is killed.

580 - King Aedan of Dalriada leads a naval expedition to Orkney, possibly in retaliation for Pictish piratical raids on his kingdom.

581 - Death of King Baetan mac Cairell of Ulster.

583 - The Battle of the Isle of Man in which King Aedan of Dalriada is successful in beating back the Ulstermen from their occupation of the island. He is probably largely interested in plunder however and does not occupy Man himself.

584 - Death of King Bruide ipe Mailcon of the Picts. He is succeeded by Gartnait ipe Domelch.

c.584-597 - King Aedan of Dalriada wages war on the Picts.

589 - Conversion of Prince Constantine of Strathclyde to Christianity, probably by St. Kentigern.

590 - The Northern British Alliance (Strathclyde, North Rheged, Bryneich and Elmet) lays siege to King Hussa of Bernicia at Lindisfarne and almost exterminates the Northumbrians from Northern Britain. King Urien of North Rheged is assassinated at the behest of his jealous ally King Morcant Bulc of Bryneich. The Northumbrians recover while internal squabbles tear the British Alliance apart.

590 - King Aedan of Dalriada probably tries to re-impose his overlordship on his old Kingdom of Manau Gododdin. He is victorious against the Picts at the Battle of Leithri (probably identical with the Battle of the Miathi) fought around the upper reaches of the River Forth.

592 - Death of St. Mo-Luag, Abbot of Lismore.

597 - Death of St. Columba, Abbot of Iona. Death of Prince Eogan mac Gabhran of Dalriada.

Part 2: AD 598-714

 

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