Owain, King of Deheubarth & Powys
(Latin: Eugenius; English: Owen)

Owain was the eldest son of King Hywel Dda (the Good), from whom he inherited the kingdom of Deheubarth, along with his brothers, Rhodri and Edwyn, in AD 950. They immediately tried to secure Gwynedd also from Iago and Ieuaf, the sons of King Idwal Foel (the Bald) from whom their father had wrested the kingdom some years before. The two forces met at the Battle of Carno, about halfway between Newtown and Machynlleth, but the Deheubarth army, commanded by Owain's sons, was thoroughly defeated. Iago and Ieuaf took back Gwynedd and celebrated by raiding Deheubarth as far south as Dyfed. In retaliation of a second raid the following year, Owain moved north, deep into Gwynedd, and clashed with its armies at the Battle of Aberconwy, somewhere on the mouth of the River Conwy in AD 954. The outcome was indecisive but the devastation to both sides was said to have been extreme. It is not clear if Owain and his brothers divided their inheritance or ruled jointly in Deheubarth. However, Rhodri died in AD 953 and Edwyn in AD 954, perhaps killed at Aberconwy, so Owain was soon sole ruler.

By AD 960, ambitions in Gwynedd seem to have been put aside and Owain turned his attention instead to western Morgannwg, which he presumably considered vulnerable to attack. Success in Gorfynedd, encouraged his armies to push east as far as Ergyng on the English border. However, this raised the attention of King Edgar the Peacemaker, who arranged a peace conference at which Ergyng was confirmed as part of the lands of Morgan Hen Fawr of Morgannwg. Unsatisfied with the situation, Owain continued to attack Morgannwg and even raided the monasteries at Llanilltud Fawr and Llancarfan. However, in AD 964, attended a conference at Caerleon where both he and King Morgan swore allegiance to the overlordship of King Edgar of England.

In AD 969, the Irish expelled from Ynys Mon (Anglesey) came to settle on the Gower Peninsula, supported by Irish Vikings. Concerned about these enemies so close to his border, Owain twice sent his eldest son, Einion, to chase them out of Morgannwg. By AD 981, Einion seems to have been ruling on his aged father's behalf. There was an invasion from Gwynedd that year, with aid from the Anglo-Saxons. The two sides met at the Battle of Llanwenog, west of Llanybydder in Ceredigion. The outcome is unknown but, after the Gwynedd soldiers had retreated, Deheubarth was certainly weakened and the Viking, Godred Haroldsson, took the opportunity to raid the Dyfed Coast, including the Cathedral at Mynyw (St. David's). More Gwynedd raids were overcome the following year but, despite this, in AD 983, Einion was still intend on Morgannwg. After the Battle of Pencoed Colwynn in Gorfynedd, his army was pushed back to the Sea and he was amongst those killed. His brother, Maredudd, then became his father's regent and succeeded to the throne of Deheubarth in AD 986. Maredudd's mother was Angharad, the daughter and heiress of King Llywelyn ap Merfyn ap Rhodri of Powys, whose kingdom he also inherited. She may have also been the mother of Owain's other sons, including Cadwallon, Llywarch and Iestyn.

Records of King Owain date back to the 10th century. He is an historic personage


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